Reserches identifies four viruses (members of the family Iridoviridae) which produce insulin like hormones. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood it may cause disease. This is the new discovery in biological mechanisms.
By analyzing large research databases that hold viral genomic sequences it is found that various viruses can produce peptides that are similar in whole or in part to 16 human hormones and regulatory proteins. These viruses are definitely known to infect fish and amphibians, but they are not known to infect humans. However, it’s possible that humans get exposed to these viruses through just eating fish. Nobody has checked directly whether under some conditions the viruses could either infect cells or be at least partly absorbed through the gut intestine. To find out if they could be active in mammals, the scientists chemically synthesized the viral insulin-like peptides (VILPs).
After experiment its proved that the VILPs could indeed bind to human insulin receptors and receptors for a closely related hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). There are some critical proteins on the cells which tell to take up glucose and to grow. Additionally, the peptides could stimulate all of the signaling pathways inside the cells that were stimulated by human insulin and IGF-1. And mice injected with the viral peptides exhibited lower levels of blood glucose, another sign of insulin action. Moreover, analysis of databases of viruses found in the human intestine showed evidence that humans are exposed to these viruses.
There are thoughts to be more than 300,000 virud=ses that can infect in mMMls, amd only 7,500 or 2.5%, have been sequenced. Thus, its need to find many more hormones , including more viral insulins, in the future. also opens up a new aspect to study in type 1 diabetes and autoimmunity. It may be that these or similar microbial insulin-like molecules could be an environmental trigger to start the autoimmune reaction in type 1 diabetes.
It show that these viral insulin-like peptides can act on human and rodent cells. With the very large number of microbial peptides exposed, there is a novel window for host-microbe interactions.